Efectos de un programa de entrenamiento excéntrico sobre la potencia muscular y fuerza máxima en basquetbolistas

Effects of eccentric training program on muscle power and maximal strength in basketball players

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Ramón Candia-Luján
Lidia Guillermina De-León-Fierro
Claudia Esther Carrasco-Legleu
Briseidy Ortiz-Rodriguez

Resumen

Introducción: el basquetbol es un deporte en el que se manifiestan acciones intermitentes e intensas durante el juego, por ello, la capacidad de producir potencia muscular es determinante. Objetivo general: comparar los efectos de un entrenamiento excéntrico y uno concéntrico sobre la potencia muscular (PM) y fuerza máxima (FM) en basquetbolistas. Materiales y métodos: participaron ocho atletas entre 16-18 años, quienes conformaron la selección de Chihuahua, que participó en los juegos nacionales 2021. El entrenamiento duró cinco semanas, con una frecuencia de dos sesiones semanales, las cuales, se llevaron a cabo cada 72 horas; los ejercicios fueron sentadilla y press banca. Los participantes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos, uno de ellos, solamente realizó la fase excéntrica (GE) y, el otro, la concéntrica (GC). Se midió la PM, con el salto contra movimiento (CMJ), lanzamiento de balón (LB) y al 30 % de la carga máxima en sentadilla y press banca; la FM, mediante la 1RM. Resultados y discusión: hubo mejorías en el CMJ (P=0,01), la PM en sentadilla (P=0,00) y FM (P=0,00), en ambos grupos; el press banca solo aumentó en el GC (P=0,05); por su parte, el LB no presentó cambios; no hubo diferencias al comparar los grupos entre sí. Conclusión: ambos entrenamientos producen efectos parecidos para el desarrollo de la PM y FM en este grupo de jugadores.

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