Manejo integrado de la marchitez vascular del tomate [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (sacc.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hansen]: una revisión

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Autores

Luisa Mayens Vásquez Ramírez
Jairo Castaño Zapata

Resumen

El tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) es una de las hortalizas más consumidas en el mundo y es atacada por numerosas enfermedades, entre las cuales, está la marchitez vascular, causada por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. El patógeno, por ser habitante del suelo, es difícil de manejar. Una vez el suelo se infesta puede permanecer con el pató- geno por tiempo indefinido. Debido al cultivo sucesivo de tomate en el mismo lugar, la población del hongo aumenta y, por ende, la incidencia de la enfermedad. Aún no se han establecido umbrales de daño económico ni sistemas de predicción, pero se conocen algunas condiciones del suelo, que pueden disminuir la incidencia de la enfermedad, como pH alto o una población alta de microorganismos antagonistas. Se han reportado numerosas prácticas de manejo enfocadas, especialmente hacia el suelo; sin embargo, son pocos los reportes acerca del manejo integrado de la enfermedad. Para la preparación de este documento, se revisó la literatura mundial y se analizó la naturaleza del patógeno, su ciclo de vida y diseminación, conocimiento primordial para realizar un manejo adecuado de la enfermedad; también las diferentes prácticas de manejo y, finalmente, la combinación de estas prácticas. El objetivo de esta revisión fue reunir la información más relevante generada en los últimos años, en torno al manejo integrado de F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, enfocando cada práctica dentro del modelo logístico de Van der Plank, que permite darles una interpretación cuantitativa.

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Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0.

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