Manejo integrado del mal de Panamá [Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.: Fr. sp. cubense (E.F. SM.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hansen]: una revisión

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

Silvia Patricia López-Zapata https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6834-6794
Jairo Castaño-Zapata https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3070-3343

Resumen

El banano es un frutal muy importante, a nivel mundial y en Colombia es el tercer producto de exportación. Una de las enfermedades limitantes del cultivo es el mal de Panamá, ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. La enfermedad es considerada devastadora, por las pérdidas que ocasionó en Gros Michel, obligando al reemplazo de este cultivar por Cavendish, el cual, está siendo amenazado por la raza tropical 4 del hongo que, aunque aún no se encuentra en el país, representa una amenaza mundial. El manejo de la enfermedad, se ha basado en la exclusión del patógeno, evitando el ingreso a áreas sanas y usando variedades resistentes, pero la naturaleza del patógeno ha demostrado que estas medidas no son suficientes y que es necesario considerar otras estrategias. El Manejo Integrado de Enfermedades MIE, en su filosofía, busca conjugar opciones en pro del cultivo para garantizar, además de la sanidad, altos rendimientos e inocuidad. Esta revisión compila información de los resultados de investigación, obtenidos mediante el uso de diferentes medidas y que sean factibles de incluirse dentro de un programa de manejo integrado del mal de Panamá, enmarcándolas dentro del modelo logístico propuesto por Van der Plank y enfatizando en la necesidad de realizar  más investigación, para obtener materiales resistentes y llevar a cabo evaluaciones en el campo, que demuestren, de manera más efectiva, la viabilidad de las prácticas propuestas.

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