Establecimiento del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana como endófito en frutos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

Contenido principal del artículo


Francisco Posada
Fabio Chaves
Thomas Gianfagna
Monica Pava Ripoll
Prakash Hebbar


El hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana fue re-aislado de superficies desinfectadas de fragmentos de la parte externa y del pedúnculo del fruto de cacao luego de dos y tres meses de que las flores de plantas criadas en invernadero fueran polinizadas manualmente y asperjadas con una suspensión de 1x107 mL-1 esporas de B. bassiana. La frecuencia de colonización de B. bassiana en el fruto de cacao fue de 0,8% y 1,3% luego de dos y tres meses de la aspersión de las esporas, respectivamente. Estos resultados indican que este hongo entomopatógeno puede ser establecido como hongo endófito de frutos de cacao luego de la aspersión de las flores de caco con esporas del hongo. Durante el estudio, también se aislaron otros hongos endófitos del fruto de cacao como Acremonium spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp. y Penicillium spp, y siete morfoespecies de bacterias, demostrando su presencia natural como endófitos de esta planta. Estos resultados sugieren que los frutos de cacao contribuyen al crecimiento tanto de hongos endófitos naturales como del hongo B. bassiana inoculado, y esto podría conllevar al establecimiento de una metodología novedosa para el manejo de insectos perforadores de frutos de cacao en programas de control biológico de insectos plaga.

Palabras clave:

Detalles del artículo




1. AKELLO, J.; DUBOIS, T.; COYNE, D.; KYAMANYWA, S. 2009. The effects of Beauveria bassiana dose and exposure duration on colonization and growth of tis- sue cultured banana (Musa sp.) plants. Biol. Control. 49:6-10.

2. ARNOLD, A.E.; MAYNARD, Z.; GILBERT, G.S. 2001. Fungal endophytes in dicotyledonous neotropical trees: patterns of abundance and diversity. Mycol. Res. 105:1502-1507.

3. BARNETT, H.L.; HUNTER, B.B. 1998. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi APS Press: Saint Paul. 218p.

4. BOS, M.M.; STEFFAN-DEWENTER, I.; TSCHARNTKE, T. 2007. Shade tree management affects fruit abortion, insect pests and pathogens of cacao. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 120:201-205.

5. BUTT, T.M.; CARRECK, N.L.; IBRAHIM, L.; WILLIAMS, I.H. 1998. Honey-bee-mediated infection of pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus Fab.) by the insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 8:533-538.

6. CHERRY, A.; BANITO, A.; DJEGUI, D.; LOMER, C. 2004. Suppression of the stem-borer Sesamia calamistis (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) in maize following seed dressing, topical application and stem injection with African isolates of Beauveria bassiana. Internal J. Pest Management. 50:67-73.

7. EVANS, H.C.; HOLMES, K.A.; THOMAS, S.E. 2003. Endophytes and mycoparasites associated with an indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri, in Ecuador and a preliminary assessment of their potential as biocontrol agents of cocoa diseases. Mycol. Progress. 2:149-160.

8. FISHER, P.J.; PETRINI, O. 1987. Location of fungal endophytes in tissues of Suaeda fruticosa a preliminary study. Transactions of the British Mycological Soc. 89:246-249.

9. FLOOD, J.; GUEST, D.; HOLMES, K.A.; KEANE, P.; PADI, B.; SULISTYOWATI, E. 2004. Cocoa under attack. In: Flood, J.; Murphy R. eds. Cocoa Futures: A Source Book of Some Important Issues Confronting the Cocoa Industry. Chinchiná, Colombia. CABI-FEDERACAFÉ- USDA, p.33-53.

10. GÓMEZ-VIDAL, S.; LOPEZ-LLORCA, L.V.; JANSSON, H.B.; SALINAS, J. 2006. Endophytic colonization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) leaves by entomo- pathogenic fungi. Micron. 37:624-632.

11. GUO, L.D.; HUANG, G.R.; WANG, Y. 2008. Seasonal and tissue age influences on endophytic fungi of Pinus tabulaeformis (Pinaceae) in the Dongling Mountains, Beijing. J. Integrative Plant Biol. 50:997-1003.

12. KOVACH, J.; PETZOLDT, R.; HARMAN, G.E. 2000. Use of honey bees and bumble bees to disseminate Trichoderma harzianum 1295-22 to strawberries for Botrytis control. Biol. Control. 18:235-242.

13. LIM, T.K.; RITA, M.; OOI, P.A.C.; CHIN, C.L. 1988. Some entomopathogenic fungi isolated from Conopomorpha cramerella. Planter 64:548-554.

14. MAHESHWARI, R. 2006. What is an endophytic fungus? Current Science 90:1309.

15. MONTEALEGRE, R.J.; RODRÍGUEZ, D.A. 1989. Patogenicidad del hongo Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. sobre la chinche Monalion dissimulatum Distant plaga del cacaotero Theobroma cacao L. Acta Agronomica. 39:88-96.

16. NGUGI, H.K.; SCHERM, H. 2006. Biology of flower- infecting fungi. Ann. Rev. Phytopathology. 44:261-282.

17. PENG, G.; SUTTON, J.C.; KEVAN, P.G. 1992. Effective- ness of honey-bees for applying the biocontrol agent Gliocladium roseum to strawberry flowers to suppress Botrytis cinerea. Can. J. Plant Pathology-Revue Canadienne de Phytopathologie. 14:117-129.

18. POSADA, F.; AIME, M.C.; PETERSON, S.W.; REHNER, S.A.; VEGA, F.E. 2007. Inoculation of coffee plants with the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota : Hypocreales). Mycol. Res. 111:748-757.

19. POSADA, F.; VEGA, F.E. 2005. Establishment of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as an endophyte in cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao). Mycologia 97:1195-1200.

20. POSADA, F.; VEGA, F.E. 2006. Inoculation and colonization of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L.) with the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Mycoscience. 47:284-289.

21. QUESADA-MORAGA, E.; LANDA, B.B.; MUNOZ-LEDES- MA, J.; JIMENEZ-DIAZ, R.M.; SANTIAGO-ALVAREZ, C. 2006. Endophytic colonisation of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, by an entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana strain. Mycopathologia 161:323-329.

22. RAMOS, A.R.; VENTURIERI, G.; CUCO, S.M.; CASTRO, N.M. 2005. The site of self-incompatibility action in cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum). Rev. Brasil. Bot. 28:69-578.

23. RUBINI, M.R.; SILVA-RIBEIRO, R.T.; POMELLA, A.W.V.; MAKI, C.S.; ARAÚJO, W.L.; DOS SANTOS, D.R.; AZEVEDO, J.L. 2005. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches’ Broom Disease. Internal J. Biological Sciences. 1:24-33.

24. SHAFIR, S.; DAG, A.; BILU, A.; ABU-TOAMY, M.; ELAD, Y. 2006. Honey bee dispersal of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum T39: effectiveness in suppressing Botrytis cinerea on strawberry under field conditions. European J. Plant Pathology. 116:119-128.

25. ST. GERMAIN, G.; SUMMERBELL, R. 1996. Identifying filamentous fungi: A clinical laboratory handbook Star Publishing Company: Belmont, CA. 314p.

26. STEPHENSON, A.G. 1981. Flower and Fruit Abortion - Proximate Causes and Ultimate Functions. Ann. Rev. Ecology and Systematics. 12:253-279.

27. SURYANARAYANAN, T.S.; THENNARASAN, S. 2004. Tem- poral variation in endophyte assemblages of Plumeria rubra leaves. Fungal Diversity. 15:197-204.

28. VEGA, F.E.; DOWD, P.F.; LACEY, L.A.; KLEIN, M.G. 2007. Dissemination of beneficial microbial agents by insects. . En: Lacey, L.A.; Kaya, H., eds. Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology. Springer, The Netherlands. p.18.

29. VEGA, F.E.; POSADA, F.; AIME, M.C.; PAVA-RIPOLL, M.; INFANTE, F.; REHNER, S.A. 2008. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes. Biol. Control. 46:72-82.

30. VEGA, F.E.; SIMPKINS, A.; AIME, M.C.; POSADA, F.; PETERSON, S.W.; REHNER, S.A.; INFANTE, F.; CASTILLO, A.; ARNOLD, A.E. 2010. Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawai’i, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Fungal Ecology. 3:122-138.

31. WAGNER, B.L.; LEWIS, L.C. 2000. Colonization of corn, Zea mays, by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66:3468-3473.

32. WATANABE, T. 2002. Pictorial atlas of soil and seed fungi. Morphologies of cultured fungi and key to species CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. 486p.

33. WIRYADIPUTRA, S. 2001. The use of entomopathogenic fungus (Beauveria bassiana) to control cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella) in the field. En: Incoped 3rd International Seminar. Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia, p.27-32.

34. YOUNG, A.M. 1994. The Chocolate Tree: A Natural History of Cacao Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC. 200p.

35. YU, H.; SUTTON, J.C. 1997. Effectiveness of bumble bees and honeybees for delivering inoculum of Gliocladium roseum to raspberry flowers to control Botrytis cinerea. Biol. Control 10:113-122.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.