Obtención de un inóculo fúngico para la degradación de un colorante azo por fermentación en estado sólido

Obtaining a fungal inoculum for degradation of an azo dye by solid state fermentation

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Ana Jaramillo
Sara Jiménez
Andrés Merino
Angelina Hormaza


La industria textil y alimentaria genera efluentes con grandes cantidades de colorantes tipo azo, ocasionando un deterioro general del ecosistema, debido a la disminución de los procesos fotosintéticos y del oxígeno disponible para la biota acuática. Para el tratamiento de dichos contaminantes, se destaca la adsorción de colorantes sobre un residuo agroindustrial, seguida de un proceso de degradación, bajo condiciones de Fermentación Estado Sólido (FES), con hongos de podredumbre blanca. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el inoculo fúngico obtenido de diferentes medios de cultivo y su efecto en el porcentaje degradación del colorante rojo 40, bajo condiciones de FES. Los diferentes medios de cultivo evaluados fueron un medio líquido de extracto de malta y los medios sólidos PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) y salvado de trigo. Los ensayos fueron realizados utilizando las especies fúngicas Pleurotus ostreatus Trametes versicolor; el proceso de degradación fue monitoreado durante 20 días y, posteriormente, fue determinado el porcentaje de degradación. Los mejores resultados de degradación fueron 93,19%, para T. versicolor y, de 63,15%, para P. ostreatus, los cuales, se alcanzaron con el inóculo fúngico obtenido del medio salvado de trigo y suplementado con extracto de malta. La variación en las condiciones de crecimiento del inóculo incidió, de forma significativa, en el porcentaje de degradación del colorante rojo 40.

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