Factores nutricionales y alteración en el contenido de antocianinas relacionados con el ennegrecimiento de los pétalos en rosa (Rosa sp.)

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

Wilson Bohórquez
John Gómez
Víctor Flórez

Resumen

Uno de los desórdenes fisiológicos más importantes en los cultivares de rosa roja corresponde al ennegrecimiento de los pétalos, lo que afecta pétalos externos e internos y resulta en flores de baja calidad. Esta revisión de literatura tiene por objetivo abordar la fisiopatía del ennegrecimiento de los pétalos, desde sus causas más posibles, con la finalidad de poner a disposición de productores, de académicos y de científicos, así como de los interesados en general, insumos que permitan desvendar su origen y optimizar su manejo. Los síntomas del ennegrecimiento de los pétalos se manifiestan, especialmente, cuando las flores son cosechadas y almacenadas en condiciones de cuarto frío, debido a la acumulación de pigmentos del tipo de las antocianinas, posiblemente, a causa de condiciones de estrés, como alta o baja radiación UV, bajas temperaturas o a un desbalance de nutrientes en los tejidos afectados. Se profundizará sobre: i) los nutrientes calcio y boro y su interacción, ii) el calcio y los desórdenes fisiológicos, iii) los pigmentos involucrados en el color rojo de los pétalos y iv) el papel de los compuestos fenólicos, en particular de las antocianinas, las cuales, son las responsables de la mayoria de los colores rojo, rosado, purpura y azul observados en las partes de la planta; así como, sobre factores ambientales que, en su conjunto, pudieran influir en la fisiopatía del ennegrecimiento de los pétalos de la rosa roja.

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