Hipercetonemia: bioquímica de la producción de ácidos grasos volátiles y su metabolismo hepático

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Autores

Oscar Felípe Huertas-Molina https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9021-8115
Daniela Londoño-Vásquez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2537-491X
Martha Olivera-Angel https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7853-4406

Resumen

La hipercetonemia o cetosis bovina es un desorden metabólico, que se caracteriza por el incremento patológico de cuerpos cetónicos (beta-hidroxibutirato (βHB), Acetoacetato (AcAc) y acetona) y ocurre en el periparto de vacas de leche. El origen primario de la enfermedad es el balance energético negativo (BEN), que puede ser desencadenado por el incremento excesivo de los requerimientos energéticos o la presentación de enfermedades posparto, resultando en la presentación de signos clínicos o disminución de la producción de leche. El objetivo de esta revisión consiste en describir, mediante un modelo, los procesos bioquímicos del rumen y los mecanismos fisiopatológicos, involucrados con incremento excesivo de los cuerpos cetónicos. En resumen, se realizó un modelo fisiológico uniendo literatura fragmentada, sobre la relación entre la función ruminal, hepática y la inducción de lipolisis e incremento de la actividad de Carnitil-Palmitoil transferasa-1 (CPT-1), cuyo resultado puede ser la producción excesiva de Acetil-CoA que, junto con la falta de propionato y oxalacetato (precursores de gluconeogénesis y ciclo de Krebs), dan lugar a la producción patológica de acetoacetato y beta-hidroxibutirato.

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