Nutrición humana, mejoramiento vegetal y metabolismo secundario: una revisión

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Autores

Marco Cabezas Gutiérrez

Resumen

Los alimentos de origen vegetal contienen una amplia variedad de vitaminas, minerales y metabolitos únicos, que pueden tener efectos beneficiosos o detrimentales en la salud y el bienestar de los humanos. Una mezcla de carbohidratos, lípidos, aminoácidos, proteínas, 17 elementos minerales y 13 vitaminas son componentes esenciales de la dieta. En países en desarrollo, el problema de hambre y de desnutrición es cada día más preocupante; aspecto distinto es el encontrado en los países avanzados donde la problemática de salud se debe principalmente a enfermedades coronarias y afecciones debidas al sobrepeso. La ingeniería genética, la proteómica, la ingeniería metabólica y otras herramientas del fitomejoramiento han sido enfocadas para aumentar la calidad y la inocuidad de los alimentos de origen vegetal. En el presente artículo, se hace una revisión de los principales grupos de compuestos considerados esenciales en la salud y en la alimentación humana, la forma en que pueden ser mejorados y las perspectivas de su utilización hacia un futuro mediato.

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