Remoción de plomo y níquel en soluciones acuosas usando biomasas lignocelulósicas: una revisión

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Autores

Edgar Quiñones
Candelaria Tejada
Cesar Arcia
Víctor Ruiz

Resumen

En la presente revisión, se identifican los bioadsorbentes extraídos de biomasas residuales utilizadas en la remoción de dos metales pesados, que presenta una amplia toxicidad para el ambiente: plomo y níquel. Se evalúa la capacidad de remoción de los mismos, destacando aquellos en los que se han obtenido altos porcentajes de remoción, mostrando la cinética aplicada en estos experimentos. Se encontró, que los bioadsorbentes más usados incluyen residuos de madera, cáscaras de frutos secos, residuos de cereales y cítricos. Para la remoción de plomo (II), el bagazo de caña de azúcar, con una capacidad de remoción de 333mg/g y para el níquel (II), la corteza de Acacia, con una capacidad de remoción de 294,1mg/g, han sido los bioadsorbentes con mayor eficiencia de remoción. Se encuentra que, en la mayoría de los experimentos, la cinética del proceso de adsorción es regida por la ecuación cinética de pseudo-segundo orden. Se recomienda el diseño de plantas piloto para la remoción de iones metálicos con las biomasas que mostraron mayor capacidad de adsorción, con el fin de que estos procesos puedan ser llevados a escala industrial.

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Referencias

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