Factores clave en procesos de biorremediación para la depuración de aguas residuales. Una revisión

Contenido principal del artículo

Autores

Óscar Ome Barrera https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3577-2794
Carlos Zafra Mejía https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4061-4897

Resumen

La biorremediación ha demostrado ser una alternativa para establecer nuevos sistemas de depuración de aguas residuales y optimizar los sistemas convencionales existentes. El objetivo de este artículo de revisión es identificar y analizar los factores clave en procesos de biorremediación para la depuración de aguas residuales, a nivel mundial. Se utilizó un método de revisión sistemática de literatura, que incluyó un índice de frecuencia de citación mediante cuartiles (Q). Los resultados mostraron la existencia de seis factores clave en procesos de biorremediación para la depuración de aguas residuales: pH (Q3) > temperatura (Q2) > oxígeno (Q2) > nitrógeno (Q2) > fósforo (Q1) > DBO5 (Q1). No existieron diferencias significativas entre las tecnologías de bioaumentación y bioestimulación en relación a los seis factores clave identificados. No se evidenció, en el ámbito mundial, una tendencia en el uso de alguna de estas dos tecnologías; sin embargo, en Asía, Europa y Norte América, se detectó un mayor número de reportes en el uso de la tecnología de bioaumentación y, en Sur América y África, existió mayor empleo de la tecnología de bioestimulación. Las tecnologías de biorremediación (Q1), probablemente, se encontraron en una fase inicial de desarrollo y aplicación en sistemas de depuración para aguas residuales, debido a que las tecnologías químicas (Q2) y físicas (Q2) presentaron un mayor reporte, a nivel mundial. Finalmente, los resultados de esta revisión son un punto de referencia para las instituciones ambientales, encargadas del control de la calidad del agua y diseñadores y operadores en sistemas de depuración.

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Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0.

 

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