Invasiones de cuatro hormigas vagabundas suramericanas: una revisión sistemática

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Autores

Ingeborg Zenner de Polanía https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7820-7138

Resumen

La invasión y la diseminación en todo el mundo, de cuatro hormigas sudamericanas nativas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Linepithema humile, Solenopsis invicta, Wasmannia auropunctata y Paratrechina (Nylanderia) fulva, su impacto ambiental y económico y las medidas de control empleadas, es documentado. El desplazamiento involuntario, se desencadena por el transporte internacional de bienes por los humanos y, en un caso, P. fulva, incluso, se introdujo deliberadamente, como posible agente de control biológico de Atta spp. y culebras. Estas hormigas vagabundas desplazan, principalmente, a las hormigas nativas, atacan a algunos vertebrados, aves, reptiles, entre otros, protegen y transportan insectos chupadores, dañan los productos humanos y pueden causar problemas de salud a hombres y animales domésticos. El control químico, además de sus efectos secundarios negativos ambientalmente, ha tenido poco éxito y un efecto residual corto y la tendencia actual es el uso de agentes de control biológico, teniendo en cuenta, que las hormigas traídas a su nuevo ecosistema han dejado atrás a sus enemigos naturales, parásitos, depredadores y enfermedades. También, para evitar nuevas invasiones o nuevas infestaciones, se han implementado medidas especiales de cuarentena y programas de erradicación. El éxito de las hormigas vagabundas, se debe, en parte, a su pequeño tamaño, que permite que se escondan en todo tipo de productos utilizados como material de embalaje, para el movimiento de productos, a su organización social, a sus variados hábitos alimentarios y, en muchos casos, hasta a su detección tardía.

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