Descripción del mecanismo bioquímico de la biohidrogenación en el rumen de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados: una revisión

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Autores

Julián Castillo
Martha Olivera
Juan Carulla

Resumen

La hidrólisis de los galactolípidos, los fosfolípidos, los sulfolí- pidos y los triglicéridos es el primer paso en el metabolismo de lípidos en el rumen, liberando ácidos grasos saturados, monoinsaturados y poliinsaturados. Recientemente, se ha reportado que el mecanismo de producción de ácido lino- léico conjugado (C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, ALC), está asociado a un desplazamiento prototrópico y que en la síntesis de su isómero C18:2 trans-10, cis-12, participa la forma oxidada de flavin adenin dinucleótido (FAD). Primero, el ácido linoléico (C18:2 cis-9, cis-12, ALi) es convertido en ALC, que se trans- forma en ácido trans-vaccénico (C18:1 trans-11, ATV), produciéndose, finalmente, ácido esteárico. El ALi es el precursor del ALC y ATV, y el FAD es usado como cofactor en estos procesos. Una de las conclusiones de esta revisión es que a medida que el conocimiento del proceso de biohidrogenación aumenta, se dispone de más oportunidades para su aplicación. Una de las más relevantes es el diseño de es- trategias nutricionales para incrementar la concentración de ácidos grasos bioactivos en leche y en carne.

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Referencias

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